THE FLENSBURG FILES

A German-American-Multicultural online column

The Creative Creator Creatively Creates a Creation- A Look at Derivations in English

20690434_1592625824101394_8170024646324876345_o

Derivations is the process of converting one grammatical aspect into another, by changing the suffix of the word given. As a general rule, we start with the root word, mainly a verb or a noun. By adding an ending, you change the grammatical function of the word. To a certain extent, the meaning of the word is altered as well.

Looking at the title of this article, we see that the root word create can be altered at least five times. The root word is the verb. Creator is the personal noun. Creation is the processional noun. Creative is the adjective and by adding an –ly at the end of that word, it’s an adverb.

Derivation 1

 

Our focus is on three of the most important aspects of derivation: verb, noun and adjective form for each conversion has its own set of rules. Have a look at the tables below:

Derivation 3

Derivation 2

Derivation 4

The nouns vary for there are four different forms, including one between personal and processional nouns, as seen in the acitivites per link here.

 

Activity 1: Conversion  There are three different tables. Look at each word in the table and find its grammatical equivalent. An example in each table is given.

 

Adjective Verb
Adaptable

 

Analytical

 

Critical

 

Innovative

 

Inspired

 

Proven

 

Viable

 

Destructive

 

Demonstrative

 

Cooperative

 

Adapt

Communicate

 

Innovate

 

Rely

 

Determine

 

Create

 

Demonstrate

 

Do

 

Sensitize

 

Believe

 

Deny

Verb Noun
Implement

Organize

 

Produce

 

Inquire

 

Develop

 

Plan

 

Justify

 

Orientate

 

Hire

 

Operate

 

Fail

 

Implementation

 

Introduction

 

Attachment

 

Performance

 

Identification

 

Identification

 

Termination

 

Judgement

 

Suspension

 

Proceedure

 

Analysis

 

Noun Adjective
Department

 

Friendliness

 

Necessity

 

Attachment

 

Essence

 

Religion

 

Decision

 

Nativity

 

Congress

 

Presentation

 

Assertion

Departmental

Able

 

Responsible

 

Analytical

 

Beneficial

 

Creative

 

Capable

 

National

 

Presidential

 

Executive

 

Sexual

 

 

Activity 2: Fill-in/ Multiple Choice  Choose the right word to complete each sentence

  1. I cannot trust my colleague. He is (unreliable/ unrely).
  2. Her behavior is too (destruction/ destructive).
  3. The students had a chance to (criticize/ critical) the examiners over their score.
  4. The presenter was very (communicative/communication) to his audience.
  5. The (elimination/ eliminative) of the department will cost the company 30 jobs.
  6. The railroad (state/ station) is on the left side of the street.
  7. An (analysis/ analyse) from the doctor revealed that you have a tumor.
  8. Using hate speech in school is grounds for (dismiss/ dismissal). Note: Grounds for dismissal is the same is being fired/canned/terminated from your job)
  9. The person, who rolled the truck into the garage, said it was (accident/ accidental).
  10. The car is a (valued/valuable) asset to this family.

 

Activity 3: Now for an even bigger challenge- Using the root word in parenthesis, complete the sentence using either the verb, adjective or noun form.  The topic is how to prepare for a test in class.

  1. _______________ is the key when you have a big test coming up. (prepare)
  2. It is important to __________ notes and pay _____________ to the teacher in class. (take/ attend).
  3. Sometimes it helps to have a _______________ outline so that better understand the _____________ of the topic. (structure/ complex)
  4. Sometimes, attending a ______________ will help you with questions that are hard but _________________ to answer (tutor/do)
  5. But you must be _________________ and clear in addressing these ____________ questions. (communicate/complicate)
  6. It is sometimes ____________________and _________________ to start studying two months before the test. (use/ help).
  7. Having ____________ partners in a study group will make studying for a test even more fun. (rely)
  8. Having good study habits, such as good ______________ skills, thorough notes and some nmemonics will help in your _______________ as a person later on. (organize/develop).
  9. The night before the test, it is ______________ not to drink caffeine nor alcohol and to get a ___________ amount of sleep. (advise/ manage).
  10. On the day of the test, be _____________ and think positive. After the test, you can __________! (confide/party).

 

FF new logo

 

Advertisements

Tongue Twisters: The Long E

 

IMGP2393
Prost! Cheers! Salut! Mazeltov! From the two travel companions enjoying a good Flens beer: BamBam and CoCo (brown)

I’d like to start this tongue twister with this anecdote: Four campers- two Americans and two Germans- are in the forest at an open fire when the Germans go to the camper to get some Frankfurters for the fire. Seconds later they come back screaming “BEER!” As big of beer fans as they are, the Americans run to the camper, assuming they are getting a good deal on a bottle of beer. However, as they arrive at the camper, they’re greeted with this:

By the way, that is a BEAR- as in BÄR in German! And by the way, it is scientifically proven that bears drink beer as seen in this video below:

 

As a tip, if a German says BEER in distress, ask them if they mean BEAR!

 

This is one of the most common problems we have with pronunciation of words in English. People see the spelling of English words but pronounce them in their foreign language. This example of the mispronunciation of BEER and BEAR is a classic example of such, both in general as well as in this segment of tongue twisters dealing with the long –E- in English.

 

Long –E- words feature the following word categories, all of which have the common denominator of stretching the mouth horizontally, “Eeeeeeeeeeeee.” :

-EE-: Words with –ee- also at the end, such as:  deed, see, bee, ween, beech, need, steel, seem, queen, street, coffee, squeeze, freeze, committee, fifteen, teenager, etc.  And yes, BEER falls here. The exception is the word “been” because it has the short “-e” pronunciation.

 

-EA: Many words, mostly with the endings of –ch, consonant+ e, -d, -l, -m, -n, -r, -on and –t  fall into this category, such as the following: reach, clean, beam, seam, leave, treat, rear, real, deal, reason and season.

Keep in mind, that words, like READ and  LEAD also have the short –e pronunciation, but different functions. Read is a homophone, whose short –e form is past tense. Lead (long –e) means to direct a group (German: Führen) but the short –e form means a metal found in water and pencils (German: Blei).

 

-IE: Like in the first two categories, one will find quite a few –ie- words whose pronunciation has the long –e-. Examples include: chief, field, ariel, adieu, thief, premier, and hygiene.

Please note that words with  –ie at the end, have the long –i- pronunciation, such as die, lie and pie.

 

-IE_E: Words with –ie plus a consonant + e ending also have the long –e sound. Examples: believe, relieve, perceive, piece, achieve, butadiene, apiece, niece.

-Y: Most words with a consonant plus a y will also have the long –e- sound, such as the following examples:    body, marry, vary, wary, dairy, very, wavy, Navy, family, baby, cherry, thirty, memory, baby.

 

Yet take care that words with the following consonant+ y ending end with a long –i- sound: -l, -n. –p, -p and –r. Examples: cry, try, lying, rely, apply, reply, xylophone.

 

_-E: Yet as a general rule, words with the consonant+ e at the end, unless a vowel predates the ending, always have the long –e for sound. Examples include: Japanese, Chinese, delete, concede, gene, these, geese, complete, interfere, here, severe, theme.

 

To sum up, long –e- words can be found in words that either have –ee-, -ie-, -ea, spellings as well as with an –e at the end, keeping in mind the exceptions.  Any questions?

 

If not: here’s a youtube video with a guide on pronouncing the words in long –e- form. This is done in a form of tongue twisters and like in the previous Tongue Twister articles (click here and scroll to see the rest), you can listen then pause to allow yourself or your class to practice.

 

And yes, we have bears drinking beer in this video! 😉 Enjoy! 🙂

 

Prost! 😀

Beer-bear-350x350
Bear drinking beer at a Bavarian restaurant. Source: thedrinksbusiness.com

 

FF new logo

Aufhören in English: The many different ways to express it.

Flags

To kick off the weekend, I would like to ask you this question: How do we say aufhören in English?

The first thing that came to mind was a scene in the film Stripes, which starred Bill Murray, Harold Ramis and Warren Oates.  Watch this Scene where the platoon get into a brawl while practicing for graduation (from 2:30 on) and ask yourselves whether what the character Winger says can be translated into the German word or not:

 

Or in this scene before, when Winger had a bad day (example right at the beginning) which got worse when his girlfriend walked out on him:

 

In both cases, they can be translated into German for Aufhören.

Aufhören can be categorized into 3-4 categories, of which two of them are most commonly used: one meaning stop it, the other one meaning to quit. Yet interestingly enough, there are several variants in the two categories that can be used, keeping in mind that not everything is 100% one size fits all. Here is a collection of the English equivalents to the German word Aufhören, which you can use in English, keeping the examples in mind as well as a couple other film examples. Feel free to add more if you think they should.

Aufhören in English2jpg

Hope they help. 🙂

flefi-deutschland-logo

Why German is a beautiful language

44593775_2117090551654916_5586565529293815808_o (1)

Picked up this rather interesting set of “word-for-word” translations going from Germany into English with both the literal as well as the actual meanings from one of the German facebook sites. Something to ponder, or even laugh about. Whatever type of humor you have. 😉  Enjoy! 😀

thinking-face_1f914

53543271_10157362247272269_4640917583023833088_n

flefi-deutschland-logo

The Use of Time Markers Part V: The Use of Past Continuous

Flags

Before we get into this topic, I would like to introduce you to this clip of a stunning upset of Georgia Tech against Florida State in American football. Have a look at the clip and come up with some sentences using past tense.

 

While you are writing some sentences our topic for the use of time markers is solely American football. The sport was introduced in 1869 through a football game between two Ivy League colleges: Rutgers and Princeton. The game consisted of a round ball, two goal posts with an end zone each and lots of tackling. But most importantly, the rules introduced by William Leggett but later modernized by another Ivy League student, Walter Camp, would eventually be integrated into the rules used in today’s sport.  The first professional league was created in 1892, yet the National Football League came into being in 1920 and counting the merger with the American Football League in 1969, is one of the oldest leagues in the world, with 32 professional teams and one of the most watched sporting events in the world, the Super Bowl. College football in America is just as popular as the NFL due to its income coming from sponsors, promotions and through college football games, including all the bowl games- most notably: The Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Citrus Bowl, etc. It also features the college marching band, which provides their home team with a round of support.

Source: Thomson200 [CC0]
While we will get to football at a later time, have you had a chance to come up with some sentences to this upset?

Some of you may have taken the easy route and written the following down:

The kicker tried to kick the ball

The defender blocked the ball

Another defender picked up the ball

That defender ran it in for the touchdown

Georgia Tech won the game.

 

Some may have been more artistic in their sentence construction and wrote something similar to the following:

As the kicker was kicking the ball, it was blocked by the defender.

While the ball was rolling along, another defender picked it up.  He was running towards the end zone when the players from Florida State tried to tackle him.

At the end of the game, the crowd was celebrating Georgia Tech’s victory.

This is where the grammar aspect comes in. The more artistic a sentence in English is, the more you can find some spots in grammar that warrant explanation. In this case, we have the words: as, while, when and a certain specified time, plus the verb forms of was + verb with –ing.

Source: SteelCityHobbies, taken in 2006 for flickr and wikiCommons

 

And this is our topic today: Time Markers involving Past Continuous Form.

Past continuous functions in a similar way as with present continuous, using the “to be” form plus the verb with the –ing ending on it. The continuous functions in a way that it describes what the person is/was doing in a time frame.  The difference between present continuous and past continuous is the following:

Present continuous:

Verb construction: Is/are + verb-ing =>  is watching; are doing
Use: Activities that happen now/ at this moment

Future tense in connection with (short-term) planning

 

 

Past continuous:

Verb construction: Was/were + verb-ing =>  was driving; were walking
Use: Activities that happened during a certain time frame before or after a an event in the past tense that was finished.

 

Examples:

1. I was watching TV when you called.

2. When you called, I was watching TV

 

3. While I was waiting for the train, my girlfriend called.

4. At this time last night, I was driving home.

5. As I was backing out, the driver hit me from behind.

The third difference between the present and past continuous forms are the time markers. There, when looking at the list below, one can see that there are more time markers in the former than in the latter, whereas the in the latter, the time markers there are used exclusively, while they are rare to use in the former.

Time markers:

Present continuous Past continuous
(right) now, currently, at the moment, momentarily, these days, nowadays, at present/ at the present time/ presently, today, while, this (week, month, year), in this era/period… While, when (as a dependent clause), as, during the time…., This time/period, certain specified time: last week, a couple days ago, on 23rd December, at 9:30 last night, etc.

 

One can also say that some of the elements in past continuous can also be used for past tense, yet one needs to pay attention to the context. That means normally, past tense is the primary verb tense used for sentences, whereas the past continuous is a supplement to the main sentence. Therefore it is normal to see a past continuous being used when the time markers of while, when, as and during are used, as seen in examples in the table above. They normally do not stand out alone unless a certain time period is used and serves as a “substitute” to the past simple verb tense.

Examples:

I was walking to the grocery store last night. – Past Continuous

I walked to the grocery store last night. – Past Simple

 

I was walking to the grocery store last night when I heard a strange noise.- Possible

I walked to the grocery store last night when I heard a strange noise.- Not possible

 

When I saw the person breaking into the store, I called the police.- Possible

While I saw the person breaking into the store, I called the police.- Not possible

 

Source: Keith Allison. Photo taken in 2017 (wikiCommons)

Exercise A:  The Choice-  Look at the sentences below and determine which highlighted part of each sentence is past simple or past continuous. Identify the time markers in each sentence.

  1. Last night, our football team lost in the playoffs finals, and the crowd was heartbroken.
  2. It happened when the quarterback was trying to throw the ball and it was intercepted.
  3. The wide receiver was wide open as the quarterback was throwing the ball to him.
  4. The linebacker, who was being blocked by an offensive lineman, suddenly reached up to tip the ball.
  5. While the ball was bobbling in the air, another linebacker saw it and reached up to grab it.
  6. After he caught the ball, he landed on the ground and started running.
  7. As he was running towards the end zone, several offensive players of the opposing team tried to stop him.
  8. When he saw an opening, he quickly broke free.
  9. While he was running towards the end zone, the noise of the crowd got louder, as the fans were cheering for him.
  10. He suddenly reached the end zone and scored, as the finals seconds ticked to zero.
  11. After he scored, he collapsed and the other players ran towards him.
  12. During that time, he was trying to gasp for air because he ran so hard and so fast despite his weight.
  13. My team started crying because we were leading by one point with four seconds left on the clock.
  14. The fans of the winning team was racing onto the field as time ran out.
  15. I still cannot forget the game today, because we were so close to winning but we were facing frontal winds during the whole game.

 

Exercise B: Unscramble- Unscramble the following words and form a complete sentence using the correct verb tense (past continuous/present continuous/past simple). HINT: Identify the subject, verb and time marker first before proceeding with the sentence construction!

Marshall game go between tonight football Jackson we to and the homecoming
win of November last in Marshall last game the year
snow fans freeze whole players it the (2x) game during and (2x)
lead by 3 points Jackson when take over Marshall in the last minute
running back wide opening end zone on the first play find ball into run the (2x) into
the (2x) problems have slippery Jackson both football Marshall with during the game
players slide field go on the (3x) as around even game
players look forward game fans the (3x) to and this year
Saturday the take place warm afternoon on in game weather sunny

 

  1. (!): Two sentence construction: Bold printed words are for the first half of the sentence. Please unscramble those in the top row first before unscrambling the bottom half that is for the second half!
sloppy win last year Marshall the sloppy after game
Jackson to this look game forward win

 

Exercise C: Fill-in

Using the verb in parentheses, complete each sentence using either the past simple or past continuous. !: Please pay attention to the time markers in each sentence. HINT: Identify them first before completing the sentence.

  1. Theo _______________ the chip dip for the party when his best friend called. (prepare)
  2. Clyde’s first day of football practice _____________yesterday at the high school football field. (begin)
  3. While I ____________ busy bringing down the quarterback, a lineman suddenly ________ into me and _________ me down. (to be/run/knock)
  4. After I _________ to the ground, I sprained my ankle. (fall)
  5. Sam ____________the best football game of his career last season, as he ___________ three touchdowns, and his team won the state championship. (play/score)
  6. We _______________ to meet friends at a tailgate party outside the football stadium when we ____________ a flat tire on our pick-up. (go/see)
  7. Because we wanted to watch the Super Bowl, we _____________ a new TV three days ago. (buy)
  8. While you _____________ with that damn chick over there, we _________do all the work to prepare for the party. (flirt/have to)
  9. Jesse ____________ with her marching band at the Rose Bowl parade yesterday. We ___________ it live on TV. (march/watch)
  10. A: What ________you _________ just now? (do- question form)

B: I _____________ a pizza. Glad you __________ because I need your help. (make/come)

 

  1. A: That _______ a foul call! (to be)

B: Hey! Why are you shouting at the TV?

A: Because that quarterback was hit after he _______ the ball! And the referee                            ____________ it!  (throw/ not see)

 

  1. A: Hey coach! Why did you cut me?

B: Because you _____________the job I had asked you to do on this football team. (not              do)

 

  1. As the quarterback BJ was ________________the field, quarterback Jimmy ____________ the field to replace him. (walk off/ enter)

 

  1. As Corey __________ the ball into the end zone to score, the marching band ran onto the field. (run)
  2. The football players _________ the coach off the field while he __________ the trophy in his arms. (carry 2x)

 

Exercise D:  

Look at the following football videos. Can you try and construct sentences in past tense, using either past simple, past continuous or both PLUS the correct time marker.  As a bonus, can you find which game winner came from a college football game? 🙂

Example 1: The Minneapolis Miracle 

 

Example 2: The Immaculate Reception

 

Example 3: The Catch of the Year

 

Example 4: The Clutch and the Clincher

 

Example 5: The Big Interception

 

Example 6: The Lateral

 

Example 7: The Botch

 

Now that you had a chance to work with the time markers dealing with past continuous and its comparison with past simple and present continuous, the next order of business will be a quiz on American football, its history, culture and all the things many Europeans probably don’t know about. 😉

ff-new-logo1

We’re Going to the Zoo!  A Look at the words with –OO in English.

runner

 

Our next tongue twister exercise deals with words with –OO in English. We rarely see words in German with –OO in there, but when one comes across them, they are different from the English counterparts. How different?

When we use the words BOOT and ZOO in German, the –OO has a long –O meaning, which is comparable to the likes of the English words: Coke, coal, and with the English equivalent to the word Boot, BOAT.

In English, the use of –OO has two different functions. The first function has to do with the short form. There, using the consonant endings of –D, -K and –T, the short form has the pronunciation of “ugh,” similar to the German words: Schön, Köln, and Kaputt.

Examples of words with the short form of –OO include: BOOK, COOK, FOOT and SHOOK.

The second function of the –OO consists of the long form, where the pronunciation has an “-Ooooh” sound in it. They sound similar to the German words: Universität and Schule but also some of the words in English, like Universal and Unicorn.  Apart from some words with the ending –T, long –OO words can be found when the consonants end in: b, f, l, m, n, p, se, plus endings with a consonant plus –e. This is in addition to words ending with just –OO, such as Zoo. Other examples of such words that exist include: Goose, Loon, Bloom, and poof.

Another hint of the different between the long and short forms can be found in the song “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins, which you can see below:

 

Now that you have seen the examples and understood the functions of the two forms of –OO words, let’s have a look at the Tongue Twister, which was filmed for you to use, watch and practice to your heart’s content. An e-copy of the tongue twister slides is available upon request. Just drop a line and you will receive one with no problems.

 

Have a shot at them and best of luck!

 

ff-new-logo1

With the Personnel, this is personal! A look at personal, personnel and persönlich.

Flags

ƒƒ FALSE FRIEND

Our next false friend looks at the word personal and its meaning in both languages. In terms of spelling is the word the same in both languages. However, the difference in meaning is something to pay attention to.

When we use the word personal in German, it means the same as Mitarbeiter and it describes the people working in a company or institution. When translated into English, we have the word personnel. It’s basically the same when using the root word person– a person who works for the company. Yet, the suffix ending is with –nel. The word staff is the synonym for this word.

The English word personal functions as an adjective, both alone as well as in combination with a noun. When we use the word alone, then it has to do with the private aspect- something that does not need to be made public unless it is deemed necessary. That means if person A has something personal with person B, then they have a problem that they need to first resolve between themselves before having another person intervene. And while private means the same as the German privat, the German equivalent for personal alone in this case is persönlich. And even when we have the word personal problem, when translated into German, it would be the same: persönliches Problem.

The tricky part is when we combine personal with another noun, for some of the word combinations are exactly the same in both languages. The reason: some of the words from English can be used in the German language as well. But the number is fewer than what can be found in German, using either the words persönlich, privat, or something similar.  You can find the examples in the first task below:

 

Activity 1. Determine if this word combination is possible (P) or impossible (I) in German. If I, translate the term into German.

  1. Personal Computer _________________________________
  2. Personal belongings _________________________________
  3. Personal assistant __________________________________
  4. Personal identification number ___________________________
  5. Personal data __________________________________
  6. Personal letter __________________________________
  7. Personal injury ___________________________________
  8. Personal debt ___________________________________

 

Activity 2. Translate the following German words into English. Hint: Most of these German words do not follow the persönlich or privat rule but when translated into English, they all start with personal.

  1. Tagebuch ______________________
  2. Distanzzone ______________________
  3. Kontaktanzeige ___________________
  4. Privatvermögen ___________________
  5. Terminplaner ____________________

 

Activity 3. Do the same thing but from English into German.

  1. Personal growth ___________________________
  2. Personal allowance ___________________________
  3. Personal quality ___________________________
  4. Personal comment ___________________________
  5. Personal appearance __________________________

 

Activity 4. Determine whether these translations are true friends or false friends. If false, correct them.

  1. Personal chemistry <-> persönliche Chemie
  2. Something personal <-> etw. Persönliches
  3. Personal opinion <-> persönliche Meinung
  4. Personal expereince <-> persönliche Erfahrung
  5. Personal hygiene <-> persönliche Hygiene

 

The Herald Nigeria

Nigerian Newspaper delivering reports on Politics, Government, Entertainment, Sports and more

National Post

Canadian News, World News and Breaking Headlines

notesfromcamelidcountry

A travel blog from Bolivia to Berlin

Suzie Speaks

The Adventures Of a Thirty-Something Life

Language-Lifestyle

This blog is the result of an idea that's in my head for already quite a time. I love languages, cultures, travel and lifestyle topics and would like to write articles about interesting topics related to these topics. This blog is more a project that I start for myself. Of course, I will be happy if my content is also a valuable source for others, so that we can share our ideas and experiences.

Voices of Flensburg

Everyone has a story if you give them a voice.

Jason L. Knoll

Politics, Policy, and Social Media

vier and loathing in the rheingau

thoughts from an american expat living in hessen

language|untangled

advice, tips and resources for your language learning

Nuts and Squirrels

German-Scottish Baking Adventures

MetNews

news, tips , tricks , advices

Love Travelling

Travel diaries providing inspiration for planning the perfect trip

%d bloggers like this: