Photo Flick Nr. 48

This Photo Flick has a photo not taken by the author but by another source, namely Glücksburg Living, whose Instagram page can be found here. This picture deserves recognition for even though the area where this picture was taken is quite beautiful- namely the Glücksburg/ Holnis area- one of the places where one can swim, jet ski, stand paddle, meditate, shoot some photos of sea gulls, eat matjes sandwiches and drink a good Flensburger beer all in one day, one graffiti sprayer tried his/her best with the English, done on one of the sheds at an unknown location. 😉 It makes a person wonder if that was “Sound-based English, Germanized English (gedeutschtes Englisch), or simply Denglish.”

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In any case, it was just too cute to ignore. And with that said, I will simply leave it and move on. 😉

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Verbs that Function Both as Regular and Irregular

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One of the least talked about subjects in the English Language are verbs, whose conjugations are both regular and irregular. Some are probably thinking why that is the case. There are two arguments for why they are not even mentioned in the classroom:

1. The endings are different but the meanings are the same. This argument applies for the different endings between British and American, where the past and perfect endings have either a -t or an -ed at the end. In many cases they can be used interchangeably. Example of such include

Dream (present) Dreamed/ Dreamt (past simple) Dreamed/ Dreamt (perfect)

Smell (present) Smelled/Smellt (past simple) Smelled/Smellt (perfect)

The same applies for irregular tenses, where a verb both have a regular and irregular form but the meanings are the same and are sometimes used in both types of English. This includes:

Wet (present) Wet/Wetted (past simple) Wet/Wetted (perfect)

Dive (present) Dove/Dived (past simple) Dived (perfect)

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2. People would understand the meaning of the words without having to make the difference in conjugation. Two examples come to mind that would counter this argument:

Lie: Lie has two different conjugations but also two different meanings. You can lie to the person to save yourself from trouble, but you cannot lay unless you’re speaking a “red neck” version of English. 😉 By the same token, one can lie down or lay down for taking a nap.

Find: Find has a past tense that has a conjugation of its own. You can found a company and establish it from the ground up, but when you say I find a company (or even finded), then you discovered the company either by research on the internet or by chance while playing hide and seek. 😉

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Then there is the third argument which states that the numbers are so few that it would make no sense to learn them. English, like any other foreign language features vocabulary whose difference in pronunciation (including homophones) and lettering (including the affixes) produce different meanings. Therefore it is important to cover all the aspects of each word, including the meanings and the context. This is important especially when translating the words into your own language because each word has a different equivalent, regardless of how the English word is conjugated.

I did some research and asked some of the native speakers and experts who taught English and found that verbs with both types of conjugation can be divided up into different categories. The German translations for each word is marked in orange. They include the following:

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American <=> British Type 1:  Word pairs that have the same meaning but the endings in past/perfect tenses are both –ed and –t. As a rule, the irregular forms are typically British English; the regular forms are typically American

VerbPresent + V-ingPast SimplePerfect FormMeaning/ Translation
dreamdreamingdreameddreamedTo think of something while sleeping
dreamdreamingdreamtdreamtGerman: schlafen
     
learnlearninglearnedlearnedTo collect knowledge for future use
learnlearninglearntlearntGerman: lernen
     
spoilspoilingspoiledspoiledTo ruin a food product or event
spoilspoilingspoiltspoiltGerman: verderben
     
burnburningburnedburnedTo apply heat to a surface sometimes causing a fire
burnburningburntburntGerman: brennen
     
leanleaningleanedleanedTo tilt against someone or something
leanleaningleantleantGerman: neigen
     
smellsmellingsmelledsmelledTo have a scent of an object or area
smellsmellingsmeltsmeltGerman: riechen
     
spillspillingspilledspilledTo empty the contents onto a surface
spillspillingspiltspiltGerman: verschütten oder verstreuen
     

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American <=> British Type 2 Word pairings where even though the meaning is the same, the verb endings with –ed are used in British English; in American English they stay the same and are considered irregular verbs.

VerbPresent + V-ingPast SimplePerfect FormMeaning/ Translation
quitquittingquittedquittedTo discontinue doing
quitquittingquitquitGerman: aufhören
     
wetwettingwettedwettedTo add fluid to a surface to make it softer
wetwettingwetwetGerman: nass machen

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Regular British and Irregular American Forms:  Word pairings that function both as a regular as well as an irregular verb form but have the same meaning; can be used in both British and American English.

VerbPresent + V-ingPast SimplePerfect FormMeaning/ Translation
lightlightinglightedlightedTo make glow
lightlightinglitlitGerman: beleuchten, anzünden, Feuer machen, u.A.
     
divedivingdiveddivedTo jump head first into the water; to drop rapidly
divedivingdovedivedGerman: Kopfsprung machen; fallen/ sinken

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Present Pairs with Different Meanings: Word pairs where each verb in present simple tense has a different meaning per conjugated regular and irregular form

Verb Present + V- ing Past Simple Perfect Form Meaning/ Translation
ringringingringedringedForming a circle around something/ German: kreiseln
ringringingrangrungMaking a sound like a bell on a telephone/ German: ringen
     
shineshiningshinedshinedTo polish/ German: polieren
shineshiningshoneshoneTo glow or cast with light/ German: scheinen
     
slayslayingslayedslayedTo strongly impress someone/ German: beeindrücken
slayslayingslewslainTo kill or destroy/ German:  töten od. zerschlagen
     
hanghanginghunghungTo attach something high off the ground and allow to sway/ German: hängen
hanghanginghangedhangedTo be suspended by neck in mid-air, causing death/ German:  erhängen
     
abide abidingabidedabidedTo continue to live and act in a similar fashion/  German fortbestehen; ertragen
abideabidingabodeabodeTo live in a home/dwelling/residence   German: leben/wohnen

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Past Pairs with Different Meanings: Word pairs whose past simple tense form has its own set of conjugations and meaning. The past tense version functions as a regular verb form.

VerbPresent + V-ing Past Simple Perfect Form Meaning/ Translation
findfindingfoundfoundLook for something/ finden
foundfoundingfoundedfoundedEstablishing a business or organization/   German: (be)gründen
     
windwindingwoundwoundWrap around something/   German: (auf)wickeln
woundwoundingwoundedwoundedTo injure someone’s feelings or through a knife-stab or gunshot/   German: verletzen
     
fallfallingfellfallenTo drop down to the ground from above/ German: fallen
fellfellingfelledfelledTo cut down a tree or tall object / German: fällen
     
feelfeelingfeltfeltTo sense something/ German: (sich) fühlen
feltfeltingfeltedfeltedTo try and perceive or twist/ German: wahrnehmen/ empfinden
     
seeseeingsawSeenTo look at something with the eyes/  German:  sehen
sawsawingsawedsawnTo cut apart a tree or object with a saw/ German:  segen
     
bearbearingborebornTo make into life; tolerate/    German: gebären; tolerieren
boreboringboredboredTo make uninteresting or tiring/   German: langweilen; langweilig machen

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Despite having a list for each of the categories, I also concluded that there are more examples of such verbs in English that exist, yet they are at best seldomly mentioned. Furthermore there may be a little bit of leeway in terms of the word pairs and the meanings. Therefore I would like to ask you to mention any further examples that you know in the language that fit into one of the five abovementioned categories. Any missing verbs will be added including the conjugations and the German translations. You will do yourself, yours truly as well as teachers of English as a Foreign Language and the students (regardless of age and school) a big favor. 🙂

Photo by Lina Kivaka on Pexels.com

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Useful Sources:

https://benjweinberg.com/2018/02/26/english-corner-regular-and-irregular-verbs/

http://www.myenglishgrammar.com/lesson-2-verbs/4-regular-and-irregular-verbs.html

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“No means NO!” A look at the many ways to reject an offer in English

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Imagine this scenario: a stranger offers a child a ride to school, or offers a woman to a cup of tea, or offers a group of people to go to a free show in a theater, etc. You want to say no, but you want to find a creative alternative to the words “No thank you.” Furthermore, you would like to know which of the expressions are more forceful than the polite versions. It’s like in the commercial produced in 2015 on the issue of consent and, like in the picture above, the offer for a cup of tea:

Of course, we could accept the offer and say sure, we can do that. Germans would use the word annehmen and the English equivalents are below:

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For the enquivalent to the German word, ablehnen, the expressions are on the same level as this traffic light:

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The green light represents the polite way of saying no, the yellow light is the more stern way, and the red light is the most forceful way. The most commonly used words to describe “No!” are decline, reject and refuse. Like the traffic light, the difference among the three verbs is as follows:

As a hint, each of the words also have an equivalent, whose meanings are different, but they are in reference to the actual meaning of the word.

Decline: Two meanings come to mind when it comes to this word. The first has to do with deteriorate, the other to go down. While it is OK to politely decline to the offer a friend gives you, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the friend doesn’t like you. Yet if you reject your friend’s offer multiple times, then you might want to ask why, for it could be a sign that a friendship is deteriorating.

Reject: There are several words that come to mind when it comes to rejecting something sternly. One can repeal, annul or back out of an offer. Yet you can reject an offer and at the same time end a relationship and leave someone behind. As a hint, when you reject something plainly and to the point, it is a sign that you want to end something and move on. Reject is a tool used to end a partnership but on a professional basis.

Refuse: Two words are used to describe the harshest form of a “No” word: refuse and waste. Refuse is British and means garbage in American English as well as Abfall in German. The stress is on the first syllable. Waste is the same as garbage as a noun, but as a verb it means using time in a worthless manner. If you use the word refuse, your implying that the other person is wasting your time and you want nothing to do with him/her. If you use refuse, then the person is being tossed into the pile of garbage, full of disappointments, but in the clearest (and hopefully) verbal manner.

Review:

Decline <=> deteriorate, go down

Reject <=> repeal, annul, back out, end, leave behind

Refuse <=> refuse (noun), garbage, waste (noun/verb)

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A. Look at the expressions below. Determine whether they represent a red light (severe), yellow light (stern but moderate) or green light (polite). Please keep in mind that both the three words plus their synonyms are featured in the examples.

  1. I refuse to talk to my dad. He’s such a racist!
  2. Patricia declined to comment on the incident.
  3. Sam rejected Torsten’s request for a paid leave of absence
  4. The police officer apprehended the driver after he refused to show him his driver’s license.
  5. The teenager refused to show his tatoo to the leader of the gang and was subsequentially beaten.
  6. Anna declined Ted’s offer for a beer after work.
  7. I refuse to be a victim to this abuse!
  8. The President rejected the proposal to sign the treaty, citing high costs to carry it through.
  9. The clerk rejected the form because there was missing information.
  10. The opposite team declined the offer to penalize the home team for the foul.
  11. The marriage was annulled due to irreconcilable differences. Annul is the same as which of the three words: ______________________
  12. I’ve decided to leave the group because of the contract and I wanted to go solo. Leave is the same as which of the three words: ___________________.
  13. The relationship has deteriorated recently because of cultural differences between the couple. Deteriorate is the same as which of the three words:_______________________
  14. I will not speak with that piece of garbage. Not after what he did. He’s a waste of time. Waste and garbage are in reference to which of the three words: _____________________
  15. I passed up on the offer to work in Auckland for family reasons. Pass up is the same as which of the three words: __________________________.
  16. The bishop shunned the couple for same-sex marriage. Shun is the same as which of the three words: ______________________.
  17. We renounced our citizenship because we didn’t want to pay double taxes. Renounce is the same as which of the three words: ____________________.
  18. Scott sat out during the game because of a nose bleed. Sit out is the same as which of the three words:_____________________.
  19. The plaintiff’s lawyer objected to the defendant’s claims in court. Object is the same as which of the three words: ____________________.
  20. People in the hall protested at the proposal to tear the historic building down. Protest is the same as which of the three words: ________________________.

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B. Complete the following sentences, using either decline, reject or refuse. Pay attention to the details!

  1. Charles _______________ to apologize to his brother for the fight because he had started it.
  2. The cat ________________ to come down from the cupboard. So Sam took a broom and chased him down.
  3. Georgia _________________ Harlow’s offer to dinner at the diner in town. She was not interested in him and he understood.
  4. I _________________ to comment on the story because I’ve only heard it for the first time. Please give me time to digest the news.
  5. The Senate ________________ the proposal calling for the increase in taxes among the wealthy.
  6. The wedding proposal was __________________ because she didn’t love him. She loved someone else.
  7. The protesters _________________ to leave the town square, so the police sprayed water on them.
  8. I _________________ to back down to Mr. Henning because his argument for me clearing my classroom was not justified.
  9. My boss _________________ the offer for a higher position because he loves his job.
  10. She __________________ the draft because it was irrelevant.

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C. Look at the following sentences and convert them using the antonyms.

Example: I refuse your apology! <=> I accept your apology!

  1. I decline the offer to marry you. <=>
  2. I refuse to talk to him. <=>
  3. The proposal was rejected by a unanimous vote. <=>
  4. The fine for speeding was rejected. <=>
  5. The peace treaty has been refused by both parties. <=>
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After watching the video and reading (as well as doing) the examples, you should have an idea on the ways to express yourself if someone offers you something in English and you want to accept or deny the offer. Regardless of severity vs politeness, the main factor is: “No means no!” If a person declines, rejects or refuses something, then there is a reason for that. It is only OK with the consent of the other and NOT based on your assumptions. What was learned in your childhood that “No means yes.” is no longer the norm in this day and age.

When it’s no, it means no. Regardless of how no is interpreted.

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Less is More- Activities

collage photo of woman
Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on Pexels.com

 

After having looked at the different forms of more and most as well as their opposites (click here to view them), we have a couple exercises for you to do so that you have an opportunity to use them. When you are finished with them, click onto this link here to get to the answer sheet.

More or Not:

Look at the following adjectives and determine whether the use of more and most apply or not. Mark with Y for yes or N for no.

  1. Impressive
  2. Greedy
  3. Angry
  4. Impulsive
  5. Insistent
  6. Sad
  7. Happy
  8. Excited
  9. Pale
  10. Busy
  11. Stressed
  12. Authoritative
  13. Tough
  14. Fair
  15. Beautiful
  16. Ugly
  17. Picky
  18. Disgusted
  19. Furious
  20. Peaceful

 

Multiple Choice:

Choose the correct word in each sentence.

  1. Colin could have ______________ told us about the accident last night instead of running off.
  • Least
  • Less
  • At least
  • Little

 

2. Frank smiles ________________. He always makes a serious look when we take pictures.

  • The least
  • The most
  • Less
  • More

 

3. Dorothea is ___________________ of the students in her class. Her IQ matches that of Einstein’s.

  • The least intelligent
  • The less intelligent
  • Intelligentest
  • The most intelligent

 

4. We have a choice between selling our business and taking out a loan. We need to ___________________________

  • Make the best of the situation
  • Choose the lesser of the two evils
  • Choose the option with least resistence
  • Do nothing.

 

5. And _________________________, before we open the festivities, we need to bring the wedding cake to the restaurant.

  • Least of all
  • Last but not least
  • More of all
  • More or less.

 

6. _________________________! We should have left some meat out of our presentation!

  • Less is more!
  • More is everything!
  • Last but not least!
  • Above all!

 

7. Clarinda is the __________________ of the women on the wrestling team. She may be 17 years old but she has a height of 5 feet even.

  • Smallest
  • Most tiny
  • Littlest
  • Least tiny

 

8. Instead of playing with your Smartphone, you could have ______________ paid attention and not crashed into that tree!

  • At least
  • At the latest
  • The least
  • Less

 

9. You are not going anywhere _____________ you clean that room of yours! It’s a real mess!

  • Less
  • Least
  • Unless
  • The least

 

10. _________________ Bill could have done was inform the landlord of the water damage in the bathroom.

  • The least
  • At least
  • Lest
  • Both a & b

 

11. There are ______________ on the streets today than normal. We would have 400 or more visitors at any given day and not 20.

  • Few
  • Fewer
  • Fewest
  • Least

 

12. There is ____________ milk in the gallon jug. Who took a drink?

  • Fewer
  • Less
  • Smaller
  • Least

 

13. The sandwiches at the snack shop are _____________ then normal. Are they cutting back on the fixings or what?

  • Smaller
  • Less
  • Fewer
  • More

 

14. There are __________ bikes than usual because of the expanded bike trail network.

  • More
  • Most
  • Less
  • Least

 

15. The number two is _______________ four in this equation.

  • Greater
  • Less than
  • The least
  • More than

 

FlFi10

Less is More. But is Most the Least?

two people riding on jet ski
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Most of us probably know the functions of comparative and superlative adjectives in English. Especially with the use of more and most as they generally support adjectives with three or more syllables plus other adjectives with endings of -ed (passive), -ful, -ive and a few other exceptions.

But there are some who don’t know about how more and most function outside the primary role of comparing two or more entities. Therefore, we will look at the different functions of the two.

 

More:

More is used to compare two entities and determine which one is better than the other. However, as we see in the table, More has other functions as well. For instance……

Use of More

 

Most:

Most is used as the superlative form of the adjective, finding out which object or person is the greatest of three or more subjects. However, most has other functions as well, as we see in the table below:

Most as function

 

Few/Small vs Less

When looking at the opposites, we have two different words to look at. For most cases where we look at objects from a quantitative purposes, we would use few and small. They also include the comparative form, each of which require the use of „-er“

Small and few

Little:

While few is very obvious because we’re talking about the numbers, many people have problems making the difference between small and little. Small is used either as an adjective or an adverb and describes the size and amount of something. Little has both grammatical functions, plus it can be used as a pronoun and determiner, yet little has two key differences:

  1. Little can be used to express some emotion or sometimes an idea of smallness
  2. Little is always used to describe something that is intangible, having no number, figure or amount.

Some examples to support the argument:

  1. There’s a beautiful little cottage next to the lake.
  2. Happy Birthday to our funny little man, known as my brother.
  3. We’ll have to use what little we have in our savings account to buy food.
  4. There’s very little water in that Reservoir.

 

Less

When we use less, we can see that there are multiple meanings and functions that should be taken account. While less means something to a smaller extent per se, its differences can be broken down into the following:

less

 

Least

In the sense of superlative, we have the same words but different meanings and functions. For small and few, the meaning is basically the same, which is looking at the small amount or size of an object, people, or other things. The endings is with –est.

 

Examples:

We have the smallest/ fewest number of salmonella cases than our neighboring community.

The town has the fewest people visiting the market square this week.

I was given the smallest meal I’ve ever seen: A plate with a mini-sandwich and only three potato wedges!

Becky was the smallest person on the basketball team (Note: You can also use shortest).

 

When looking at the superlative for little, namely least, here we have a different set of functions and meanings to pay attention to.

Least

In German, all of these in the box above have one meaning: wenigstens. 😉

Now that we know how the comparative and superlative words work in the sense of grammar and context, we’re going to look at the activities which you can click here to access.

 

Flensburg Sunset

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LOOK AT THAT! DID YOU SEE IT?!!- Verbs of Perception in English

basketball

Imagine you are sitting down with some friends, watching a good basketball game on TV. You see that there is popcorn, beer and cola, Chex snack mix and bars on the coffee table. You notice the excitement in the atmosphere among your friends, especially as you had a bet with one of them, who is staring at you in hopes he would win the bet.

All of a sudden, you see this happen:

 

 

Everyone is jumping up in the air, with food and drink flying all over the floor. One of your friends is hosting the party and comes to the living room to see a mess and all of you covered in food and drink. His lone reaction:

WHAT DID YOU DO?! LOOK AT THIS MESS!!!  WHO’S GOING TO CLEAN IT UP?!!

 

The redness on his face was not only the expression of anger (which is understandable) but also fear because his parents would be coming home soon.

 

And he was not supposed to have a basketball party, unless he risked getting grounded. 😉

 

But looking at the situation, we have many words in there that have to do with perception: LOOK (AT), SEE, WATCH, STARE, OBSERVE & NOTICE. All but TWO of them mean the same as the German SEHEN, whereas NOTICE means BEMERKEN and OBSERVE is BEOBACHTEN.

The underlying meaning behind them has to do with the context and for people learning English, this is difficult to do unless you understand the meaning, have an example and even include an mnemonic (Eselsbrücke) to help you.

Here are the differences you need to pay attention to:

 

SEE SEE has to do with the passive function of the eyes. We use SEE when something sudden appears and you have to shift your eyes onto that object.

 

SEE is an irregular verb with the past tense SAW and perfect form, SEEN

Examples:

 

1.      When I look out of the window, I see my neighbor’s garden with lots of flowers

2.      Did you see what I saw?  Yeah, I saw a huge dolphin swimming in the harbor.

 

As an mnemonic, think of this tongue twister: Mr. See owns a saw. Mr. Saw owns a seesaw. Now see saw soar saw seesaw (….) Link here.

NOTICE When you NOTICE something, you suddenly realize that something is there. Most of the time you comment on something you NOTICE.

 

NOTICE is a regular verb where only -D is added for both past and perfect forms.

Examples:

 

1.      I noticed you have a new pair of glasses! How long have you had them?

2.      Ben got the notice from his boss yesterday that he was being laid off.

 

As an mnemonic, think of a situation where one person gives his boss his NOTICE because he’s unhappy with his job. In this case, the boss NOTICES this NOTICE suddenly and must react by finding a new employee to replace him.

STARE The opposite of notice is STARE. To STARE at someone is when a person looks at the person or an object for a long period of time for a specific reason.

 

If it’s a person, unless you are playing the stare game, STARING at a person may present some discomfort  because he/she is being perceived as an object of interest.

 

STARE shares the same function as NOTICE and is a regular verb, whose past and perfect form ends with -D

Examples:

 

1.      Grady stared at Nicole for a long time because of her long brown hair.

2.      The police officers were staring at a house because one was trying to break in.

3.      Jack and Clara played stare game and stared at each other for a long time.

 

STARE game is when two people stare at each other for as long as possible  until one flinches. The one who stares the longest wins.

 

 

LOOK (AT) To LOOK at someone means you are directed by a person to see something that the other person saw but only for a short time.

 

LOOK (AT) in this case should not be mixed up with SEARCH, for one can use LOOK (FOR) in the case of finding something.

 

LOOK is a regular verb tense whose past ending is -ED

Examples:

 

1.      Look at that girl there! She’s a real beauty.

2.      Have you ever looked at yourself in the mirror, lately?

 

Mnemonic: Who was your first lover? Think about the story about that first person you were in love with. Did someone tell you to LOOK AT the person when she was garnering your attention?

WATCH WATCH can be used when you are looking at something for a long period of time, like a game, an event, a show on TV or sometimes babysitting smaller kids.

 

WATCH has -ED as an ending for past and perfect and is a regular verb

 

WATCH OUT and LOOK OUT are the same but have a different meaning. They imply that danger is ahead and you must avoid or steer clear of it.

Examples:

 

1.      My friends and I watched a great football game on TV last night.

2.      She really enjoyed watching the orchestra concert at the high school.

3.      Watch out! Deer!

 

There are two Mnemonics. The first is asking what your favorite TV shows were (or still are). For WATCH OUT, use the deer crossing as a sign. When you see one, you know you need to slow down and watch for wildlife.

OBSERV-E OBSERVE has the same function as WATCH, which means looking at something for a long time. However, OBSERVE is when a person looks at the developments of a project, behavioral pattern or changes in the environment and analyses it, providing some conclusions in oral or written form.

 

OBSERVE is a regular verb and has a -D ending for past and perfect form

Examples:

 

1.      I’ve observed your behavior lately and you seem irritated. What’s wrong?

2.      The teacher observed the science experiment closely.

3.      The students observed the demonstration with interest.

 

OBSERVE has more to do with seeing things live and not from a distance. Therefore, ask yourself what your favorite science experiment was in school.

After learning the rules regarding the difference among the perceptive verbs, here are some activities for you to do so that you have a chance to use them correctly. An answer sheet can be found by clicking here.

 

ACTIVITY 1:

Multiple Choice:  For each sentence, choose the correct word and write it in the blank. Pay attention to the verb tenses.  One answer possible!

 

1.      When I opened the window, I _____________ Mr. Markman mowing the lawn.

a.      Watch          b. See                  c. Observe          d. Look at

 

2.      I __________ that you have a cool haircut, Mia. Which hair dresser did you visit?

a.      Notice          b. Observe          c. Look                d. Watch

 

3.      Ken, Don and I ____________ three hours of professional wrestling on TV last night.

a.      Look             b. Notice             c. Watch             d. See

 

4.      Quit ____________ at me, Jake! I don’t like that.

a.      Watch          b. See                  c. Stare                d. Look at

 

5.      Karen and Mattie ____________ exhibits at the museum while I’m meeting friends at a pub.

a.      Stare                    b. Notice             c. Look at            d. Observe

 

6.      Fans and the prep band ____________ the football game at the stadium in Hanover on Friday.

a.      Watch                 b. Look at           c. Observe          d. Stare

 

7.      Wow! __________ that beauty walking down the stage!

a.      Stare                    b. See                  c. Look at            d. Observe

 

8.      Did you __________ that asteroid that landed in the field, last night?!!

a.      See                       b. Look                c. Stare                d. Observe

 

9.      Many kids in the class ____________ Ms. Mulder’s amazing chemistry project in the science lab.

a.      Notice                 b. Observe          c. Stare                d. Look

 

10.   Wow, Dean! You __________ pale. Are you OK, Bud?

a.      Watch                 b. Stare               c. Notice             d. Look

 

11.   We ____________ the snow falling onto the ground for a few minutes yesterday.

a.      Look                    b. Watch             c. Notice             d. See

 

12.   Millie, you ____________ the kids this evening as we will go out for dinner, understand?

a.      See                       b. Observe          c. Watch             d. Notice

 

13.   ____________ what you did! Who’s going to pay for the new window?

a.      Watch                 b. See                  c. Look                d. Notice

 

14.   Mr Hildebrandt _____________ Heidi’s change in behavior in class and went to talk with her about it.

a.      Look at               b. Observe          c. Watch             d. See

 

15.   Leia ___________ the ducks closely on the lake and wrote down her results.

a.      Observe              b. See                  c. Notice             d. Look

 

ACTIVITY 2:

Word Group:   Look at the following group of words and determine which of the perceptive verbs you would use. One answer possible!

 

1.      Student               Test                      Classroom          Write  

ANS: ____________________

2.      Stadium              Baseball              Umpire                Pitcher   

ANS: ____________________

3.      Car                       Deer                     Road                    Darkness     

ANS: ____________________

4.      Wildlife               Forest                  Bear                     Mating    

ANS: ____________________

5.      Highway              Car                       Flat tire               Police Officer  

ANS: ____________________

6.      Games                 Kids                       TV                         Trouble

ANS: ____________________

7.      Old dress            New outfit          New hair style   New attitude 

ANS: ____________________

8.      UFO                     Farm field           Alien (E.T.)          Rotating Lights

ANS: ____________________

9.      Boss      Anger Management        Crying Worker      Fired    

ANS: ____________________

10.   Parking lot         Parking Meter   Parking Ticket    Car 

ANS: ____________________

 

ACTIVITY 3:

Dia-Slide Show: Now you have an opportunity to construct sentences using the perceptive verbs.  Use the following 15 pics and construct a sentence using the correct Verbs. Please note that there are many answers possible.  Good luck! 🙂

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Note: All the photos were taken by the author and the motif is in the far North.

 

Activity 4:

A Couple or Not? Sometimes it is possible to use more than one perceptive word in a sentence. Look at each pair and determine if they are a match or not. Answer with either Yes or No.

  • Trevon stared at Pauline for a long time because of her beauty.
  • Trevon looked at Pauline for a long time because of her beauty.

2.

  • WATCH OUT! DEER!!
  • LOOK OUT! DEER!!

3.

  • We saw that you bought a new car. How much was it?
  • We watch that you bought a new car. How much was it?

4.

  • Did you see Fall Guy on TV last night?
  • Did you watch Fall Guy on TV last night?

5.

  • I was watching your interaction with Anja with concern. Do you want to talk about it?
  • I was observing your interaction with Anja with concern. Do you want to talk about it?

6.

  • Sean got a notice from his boss today.
  • Sean got a watch from his boss today.

7.

  • Jana was watching Dr. Quincy when the phone rang.
  • Jana was seeing Dr. Quincy when the phone rang.

8.

  • Hundreds of fans watched the soccer team score the winning goal the last second.
  • Hundreds of fans observed the soccer team score the winning goal the last second.

9.

  • Did you see the UFO fly over the city hall?
  • Did you watch the UFO fly over the city hall?

10.

  • I see that you are packing your stuff and leaving. Where are you going?
  • I notice that you are packing your stuff and leaving. Where are you going?

 

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Beware of the German Umlaut! A look at some confusing words in German and their English translations

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When learning a foreign language, one has to be aware of different symbols in the alphabet and how you should pronounce words where the symbols exist. You can find words with accent-symbols in many romantic languages as well as Hungarian. You can find Os with a line cutting through in Norwegian. You can find small ‘V’s on consonants in the Czech Language. You can find the “laying” S symbols on words with N in them in Spanish (think of El Nino)

In German, we have the Umlaut. Consisting of the two small dots on the vowels, the umlauts are designed to stretch out the mouth a bit horizontally, but without having to lose the quality of the original vowels. The umlauts can be found in vowels A, O and U, hence: Ä, Ö, and Ü. This means with A (Ah), we have Ä (aaah), O (oh) with Ö (orh) and U (you) with Ü (yee).

The trick behind the umlauts is trying to widen the mouth that is otherwise too tall and too stubborn to move. And this is where we have some problems with pronouncing the words in German. In German we have many words whose vowels function with AND without umlauts, BUT the meanings are totally different. Have a look at some examples:

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What other words could you add to this list? Add them and comment on the meanings in the comment section below or on the Files’ facebook pages.

 

In case you have some problems with the umlauts, try some mnemonics at home, first with words with the same vowel with umlaut, like this example:

Die grüne Hühn steht vor der Tür (The green hen is standing in front of the door- all words with Ü)

Then try and build a sentence with the same vowel- but with AND without the Umlaut

Die unglaubliche grüne Hühn ist klug (The unbelieveably green hen is smart)

 

There are also some videos that look at the umlauts further. Here are a couple examples that are worth watching.

And last, but not least, practice! Practice!! Practice!!!. Make the distinction with the words, use some examples to help. And if you still have some problems, consult a native German who can help you further. He/she will get you in shape with the Umlauts. They are indeed a workout for learning the foreign language. 😉

Viel Glück!

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The Search for International Idioms

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frage für das forum  GUESSING QUIZ

Idioms are creative words and phrases that have a their own fixed meaning in the context. They can range from Idioms used for (example) Food, Work, Numbers, Church and in some cases, names (an article on Idioms connected with names can be found here)

This set of Idioms was found through a Forum that features English teachers and those wanting to learn English. One of the members found the top ten Idioms used from their native countries but known throughout the world.

As a challenge, here’s a matching exercise where you should match the Idioms with the meanings on the right. Which ones do you know?  Guess first and then check the answers at the bottom of the article. Good luck! 🙂

 

Idiom (Country) Meaning
1.       You can’t pluck feathers off a bald chicken (The Netherlands) a. To beat around the bush
2.       To ride an elephant to catch a grasshopper (Thailand) b. To brag or talk something up to be bigger than it actually is.
3.       A dog in the church (Italy) c. To fool a person/people
4.       “Stop ironing my head!” (Turkey) d. To go away/ get lost
5.       Walk around in hot porridge (Czechia) e. To have better things to do
6.       Emit smoke from seven orifices (China) f. “Knock it off! Stop annoying me!”
7.       Have other cats to whip (France) g. Unwanted guest(s)
8.       To inflate a cow (China) h. Things that are impossible cannot happen
9.       To hang noodles on someone’s ears (Russia) i. Put in a lot of work to get little in return
10.   Get stuffed with hay (Polish) j. To be extremely angry/ furious

OMT: What other international Idioms (translated into English) do you know? Add your examples in the comment section below AND include the origin of the Idiom. An example is presented below:

Going to two weddings at the same time (Germany; specifically, Saxony)-   

To be at two places at once.

 

Looking forward to adding onto the list what you present. 🙂

 

FlFi10

 

 

 

Answers: 1. h, 2. i, 3. g, 4. f, 5. a, 6. j, 7. e, 8. b, 9. c, 10. d

 

“Verstehen Sie Savvy?” The many meanings of “Do you Understand” in English

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A couple months ago, I did a survey to find out how many meanings and translations we can find for the question: Do you understand?  The German equivalent is Verstehen Sie? (or when using the informal: Verstehst du?)  

After compiling the different ways of expressing this phrase, this what I got in the end:

Savy with a twist

At least 40 different expressions of Do you understand– in English!  🙂 There are some formal ones we use, but we also have three times as many informal expressions of this phrase that have been used. They depend on not only the country but also the region in the Anglo-Saxon speaking countries where you will find them in use.  For example, the Scots use the expression “Do you, ken,” whereas “You know?” is found mostly in the rural Midwestern region of the US. But those are small examples.  Ironically, some of the romantic expressions, like Comprende, Capito, etc. have been adopted into the English language and they can be found in areas where Italian and Spanish are used.  Sometimes a little bit of “Savvy,” is used if one wants to impress his French. 😉

This artwork best describes the many forms of “Do you understand” for wine and dinner are the best combinations to having a great conversation, persuading each other to agree to disagree with the point of view of the other.  In simpler languages, great conversations require wine and the many forms of the expression needed in order for the discussion to be lively and “sophisticated.”

There’s no doubt that there are more in addition to what is presented in close-up, but for those wishing to learn the language, this expression is one of the main questions you will need to know so that you can use it to better communicate with others.  It will make for avoiding misunderstandings, together with another Expression used to help the other help you to understand, which is:

I don’t understand. 😉

Savy Red Wine

 

You see what I’m sayin’ ? 🙂

 

Author’s Note: Some recipients sent me the expression Savy? without having to look up the word and realize the word is with two V’s. A bit too late for the wine bottle (even though the word looks cool on the label), however, to ensure the correctness of the word, the title is with two V’s. 

 

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The Creative Creator Creatively Creates a Creation- A Look at Derivations in English

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Derivations is the process of converting one grammatical aspect into another, by changing the suffix of the word given. As a general rule, we start with the root word, mainly a verb or a noun. By adding an ending, you change the grammatical function of the word. To a certain extent, the meaning of the word is altered as well.

Looking at the title of this article, we see that the root word create can be altered at least five times. The root word is the verb. Creator is the personal noun. Creation is the processional noun. Creative is the adjective and by adding an –ly at the end of that word, it’s an adverb.

Derivation 1

 

Our focus is on three of the most important aspects of derivation: verb, noun and adjective form for each conversion has its own set of rules. Have a look at the tables below:

Derivation 3

Derivation 2

Derivation 4

The nouns vary for there are four different forms, including one between personal and processional nouns, as seen in the acitivites per link here.

 

Activity 1: Conversion  There are three different tables. Look at each word in the table and find its grammatical equivalent. An example in each table is given.

 

Adjective Verb
Adaptable

 

Analytical

 

Critical

 

Innovative

 

Inspired

 

Proven

 

Viable

 

Destructive

 

Demonstrative

 

Cooperative

 

Adapt

Communicate

 

Innovate

 

Rely

 

Determine

 

Create

 

Demonstrate

 

Do

 

Sensitize

 

Believe

 

Deny

Verb Noun
Implement

Organize

 

Produce

 

Inquire

 

Develop

 

Plan

 

Justify

 

Orientate

 

Hire

 

Operate

 

Fail

 

Implementation

 

Introduction

 

Attachment

 

Performance

 

Identification

 

Identification

 

Termination

 

Judgement

 

Suspension

 

Proceedure

 

Analysis

 

Noun Adjective
Department

 

Friendliness

 

Necessity

 

Attachment

 

Essence

 

Religion

 

Decision

 

Nativity

 

Congress

 

Presentation

 

Assertion

Departmental

Able

 

Responsible

 

Analytical

 

Beneficial

 

Creative

 

Capable

 

National

 

Presidential

 

Executive

 

Sexual

 

 

Activity 2: Fill-in/ Multiple Choice  Choose the right word to complete each sentence

  1. I cannot trust my colleague. He is (unreliable/ unrely).
  2. Her behavior is too (destruction/ destructive).
  3. The students had a chance to (criticize/ critical) the examiners over their score.
  4. The presenter was very (communicative/communication) to his audience.
  5. The (elimination/ eliminative) of the department will cost the company 30 jobs.
  6. The railroad (state/ station) is on the left side of the street.
  7. An (analysis/ analyse) from the doctor revealed that you have a tumor.
  8. Using hate speech in school is grounds for (dismiss/ dismissal). Note: Grounds for dismissal is the same is being fired/canned/terminated from your job)
  9. The person, who rolled the truck into the garage, said it was (accident/ accidental).
  10. The car is a (valued/valuable) asset to this family.

 

Activity 3: Now for an even bigger challenge- Using the root word in parenthesis, complete the sentence using either the verb, adjective or noun form.  The topic is how to prepare for a test in class.

  1. _______________ is the key when you have a big test coming up. (prepare)
  2. It is important to __________ notes and pay _____________ to the teacher in class. (take/ attend).
  3. Sometimes it helps to have a _______________ outline so that better understand the _____________ of the topic. (structure/ complex)
  4. Sometimes, attending a ______________ will help you with questions that are hard but _________________ to answer (tutor/do)
  5. But you must be _________________ and clear in addressing these ____________ questions. (communicate/complicate)
  6. It is sometimes ____________________and _________________ to start studying two months before the test. (use/ help).
  7. Having ____________ partners in a study group will make studying for a test even more fun. (rely)
  8. Having good study habits, such as good ______________ skills, thorough notes and some nmemonics will help in your _______________ as a person later on. (organize/develop).
  9. The night before the test, it is ______________ not to drink caffeine nor alcohol and to get a ___________ amount of sleep. (advise/ manage).
  10. On the day of the test, be _____________ and think positive. After the test, you can __________! (confide/party).

 

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