We’re Going to the Zoo!  A Look at the words with –OO in English.

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Our next tongue twister exercise deals with words with –OO in English. We rarely see words in German with –OO in there, but when one comes across them, they are different from the English counterparts. How different?

When we use the words BOOT and ZOO in German, the –OO has a long –O meaning, which is comparable to the likes of the English words: Coke, coal, and with the English equivalent to the word Boot, BOAT.

In English, the use of –OO has two different functions. The first function has to do with the short form. There, using the consonant endings of –D, -K and –T, the short form has the pronunciation of “ugh,” similar to the German words: Schön, Köln, and Kaputt.

Examples of words with the short form of –OO include: BOOK, COOK, FOOT and SHOOK.

The second function of the –OO consists of the long form, where the pronunciation has an “-Ooooh” sound in it. They sound similar to the German words: Universität and Schule but also some of the words in English, like Universal and Unicorn.  Apart from some words with the ending –T, long –OO words can be found when the consonants end in: b, f, l, m, n, p, se, plus endings with a consonant plus –e. This is in addition to words ending with just –OO, such as Zoo. Other examples of such words that exist include: Goose, Loon, Bloom, and poof.

Another hint of the different between the long and short forms can be found in the song “Footloose” by Kenny Loggins, which you can see below:

 

Now that you have seen the examples and understood the functions of the two forms of –OO words, let’s have a look at the Tongue Twister, which was filmed for you to use, watch and practice to your heart’s content. An e-copy of the tongue twister slides is available upon request. Just drop a line and you will receive one with no problems.

 

Have a shot at them and best of luck!

 

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Idiomatic Expressions with Christmas

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Right in time for the next Advent celebration to have, we have a really cool set of  idiomatic expressions that deal with Christmas, regardless of if it’s in English or German. Have a look at the Guessing Quiz and its 15 questions and take a stab at it. The answers are at the end of the article.

Good luck and Happy Holidays! 🙂 ❤

idiomatic expressions Christmas

 

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FlFi Christmas 2018

 

 

 

 

 

Answers: 1. true  2.  false 3. false 4. false  5. false  6. true  7. false   8. true   9. true  10. true  11.  a.  12. b.   13. b.  14.  b.   15. b.

With the Personnel, this is personal! A look at personal, personnel and persönlich.

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ƒƒ FALSE FRIEND

Our next false friend looks at the word personal and its meaning in both languages. In terms of spelling is the word the same in both languages. However, the difference in meaning is something to pay attention to.

When we use the word personal in German, it means the same as Mitarbeiter and it describes the people working in a company or institution. When translated into English, we have the word personnel. It’s basically the same when using the root word person– a person who works for the company. Yet, the suffix ending is with –nel. The word staff is the synonym for this word.

The English word personal functions as an adjective, both alone as well as in combination with a noun. When we use the word alone, then it has to do with the private aspect- something that does not need to be made public unless it is deemed necessary. That means if person A has something personal with person B, then they have a problem that they need to first resolve between themselves before having another person intervene. And while private means the same as the German privat, the German equivalent for personal alone in this case is persönlich. And even when we have the word personal problem, when translated into German, it would be the same: persönliches Problem.

The tricky part is when we combine personal with another noun, for some of the word combinations are exactly the same in both languages. The reason: some of the words from English can be used in the German language as well. But the number is fewer than what can be found in German, using either the words persönlich, privat, or something similar.  You can find the examples in the first task below:

 

Activity 1. Determine if this word combination is possible (P) or impossible (I) in German. If I, translate the term into German.

  1. Personal Computer _________________________________
  2. Personal belongings _________________________________
  3. Personal assistant __________________________________
  4. Personal identification number ___________________________
  5. Personal data __________________________________
  6. Personal letter __________________________________
  7. Personal injury ___________________________________
  8. Personal debt ___________________________________

 

Activity 2. Translate the following German words into English. Hint: Most of these German words do not follow the persönlich or privat rule but when translated into English, they all start with personal.

  1. Tagebuch ______________________
  2. Distanzzone ______________________
  3. Kontaktanzeige ___________________
  4. Privatvermögen ___________________
  5. Terminplaner ____________________

 

Activity 3. Do the same thing but from English into German.

  1. Personal growth ___________________________
  2. Personal allowance ___________________________
  3. Personal quality ___________________________
  4. Personal comment ___________________________
  5. Personal appearance __________________________

 

Activity 4. Determine whether these translations are true friends or false friends. If false, correct them.

  1. Personal chemistry <-> persönliche Chemie
  2. Something personal <-> etw. Persönliches
  3. Personal opinion <-> persönliche Meinung
  4. Personal expereince <-> persönliche Erfahrung
  5. Personal hygiene <-> persönliche Hygiene

 

Raise Your Glasses in the Evening on Saturday- A look at the Prepositions of At/In/On for Time

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Taken on September 22, 2005 [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons
Prost! Cheers! Mazeltov! Salut! Zum Wohl!  Raise you glasses as you made it through the week. On a Friday night at 9:00pm, you and your friends are celebrating over wine before riding in the night going home.

Wait a minute! In the night? Why not at night?

Very simple: When you ride home in the night, you are riding home in darkness at night, whereas at night itself focuses on the time during the 24-hour day where between 8:00pm and 12:00am, the moon shines its very best. An even better way to describe the difference is a song produced for the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984, describing the runner at night training in darkness in order to win the gold medal:

It is one of many deep secrets about the prepositions of time, using at, in and on. In each language, there is a different meaning of the three if we focus on the aspects of calendar, clock and the clicks of the timer. The best way to look at this is by looking at the picture below:

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André Karwath aka Aka [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5)%5D, from Wikimedia Commons

Without reading further, where would you place the three prepositions in the wine glass?

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The reason for the wine glass concept is very simple. With a few exceptions, wine glasses have an half-oval shape as a way of measuring the amount of wine poured into the glass.  That means as the wine glass is filled up, the amount of wine increases as the width of the glass widens. The narrower the glass, the less wine you have.

The wine glass represents the time frame where as the wine glass is filled to the top, the longer the given time period is allotted. That means at the bottom of the wine glass, where next to no drops are poured, that is where the preposition AT belongs to. AT here focuses on the exact time and moment of an event. Examples of how at is used is the following:

The train to Paris leaves at 7:45am from platform 5.

At Easter time, we have the egg hunt.

I’m not here at the moment

The Treaty of Armistice was signed at the 11th hour on November 11th.

It’s 11:00 at night. Do you know where your children are at?

 

When the wine glass is a third to a half full, then the width of the wine glass plus the amount of the wine is restricted. That is the same for the number of hours in a day, which is 24. Here, ON best fits the wine glass model for it is used to focus on a certain day or date, be it an exact date, holiday or even a day in the week, as seen in the examples below:

On Easter Sunday, we go to church.

I have an appointment on Monday.

She was born on 27 April, 1980.

 

When the wine glass is completely full, then so is the (sometimes) unlimited amount of wine, and in this case, time a person has. This is the meaning of IN in a sense of time. IN focuses on long periods of time. With the exception of certain periods in the day, like in the morning, afternoon and evening, IN has to do with long periods of time that is allowed to complete something. This can include months, weeks and years, but also seasons and other time periods where time keeps running whereever it wants to.  Some examples of how the preposition IN can be used include:

In the spring, we plant our crops.

We have tea time in the afternoon.

Who is making noise in the middle of the night?

Our conference will take place in October.

World War II ended in 1945. 

 

In the end, after reading the explanations, your wine glass in connection with time should look like this:

wine glass time

After looking at the review, do you have any questions? If not, let’s proceed to the exercises, shall we? 🙂

Activity 1.  Complete the sentences using the correct preposition of time (at/in/on)

  1. The concert takes place _____ 5:00pm ______ Sunday at the Church
  2. ______ May, we will fly to Thailand for three weeks.
  3. It’s 11:30 ______ night. Do you know where your children are?
  4. _______ Tuesday we have our important town hall meeting. It starts ______ 10:00am and will last two hours.
  5. Sherry was born _______ 23rd of May, 1977 ______ 3:00am at the hospital in Dublin.
  6. World War I ended ________ 11th of November ________ the year 1918________ 11:11 am.
  7. The building will be finished ________ the spring.
  8. _______ Easter, we have a family gathering at my grandmother’s place.
  9. _______ New Year’s Day we will be at some friends‘ to celebrate.
  10. The Christmas market starts _______ 5:00pm _______ the evening, and ends _______10:00 ______ night.

Activity 2. Why do we say these things? Explain.

  1. Why do we say 9:00 at night instead of in the night?
  2. Why do we say in the morning instead of at the morning?
  3. Why do we say in March instead of on March?
  4. Why do we say on Monday instead of at Monday?
  5. Why do we say both on the weekend and at the weekend?

 

Activity 3. The following sentences are incorrect. Change them to make sure they are right.

  1. The Open Night of Science will start at 8:00pm in the night.
  2. Stacy was born in January 23rd, 1967.
  3. The TV-series made its debut on 1988 and was cancelled at 1991.
  4. The bus comes every morning at 7:30 to pick up the children.
  5. In the weekend, there is a choir concert at the city convention center.
  6. In the moment, I’m preparing the exams.
  7. The meeting will take place on 6:45am at Thursday the 14th of September.
  8. At the winter time, we go skiing in the Alps.
  9. In Christmas, we sing carols.
  10. In my birthday, we will celebrate it at my place.

 

Activity 4. Complete each phrase with at, in, or on.

  1. ______ Saturday
  2. ______the afternoon
  3. ______ noon
  4. ______ Thanksgiving
  5. ______ 4:00pm
  6. ______ 1300 hours (military time)
  7. ______ the fifth day of Christmas (song)
  8. ______ this time
  9. _______ the weekend
  10. ______ night
  11. ______ midnight
  12. ______ the wee hours of the morning
  13. ______ 2:30 ______ the morning
  14. _______ breakfast
  15. _______ the time of Lent
  16. _______ Friday night
  17. ______ Friday
  18. ______ this second
  19. ______ the class period
  20. ______ this day.

 

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Germany Quiz 8: Part III: The Inventions from Saxony- Answer Key

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And now, the answers to Part III of the Guessing Quiz on the Inventions and Inventors from Saxony. Are you ready to find out? 🙂

Part 1: Which of the items in the group were invented from Saxony. Choose the ones you think were invented in Saxony and explain your reasons why. 

gas lantern        tissue paper       wrist watch band             light bulb

mile marker      tea bag               sugar cookies                  steam locomotive

street food        coffee filter       personal computer        daily newspaper

bicycle                laundry detergent          mouthwash       telephone

brandy               beer cap             encyclopedia                   Bible

Gas Lantern- The first gas lantern for streets was erected in 1811 in the Fischergasse in Freiberg. The inventor: Wilhelm August Lampadius, who was a teacher at the Bergakademie (Now TU-Freiberg)

Wrist Watch Band- The watchband was invented for men in 1959 in Glasshütte.

Mile Marker- Adam Friedrich Zürner introduced the mile marker (in historic terms, mile posts) in 1713 to measure the distance between towns in Saxony. According to his geographical surveys he created, two post miles equalled 9.062 kilometers, an equivalent to two-hours walk. Today one can find 200 of these ancient posts, plus 60 distance posts throughout Saxony, including Leipzig, Geithain, Dresden, Großenhain and in the Lausitz region, just to name a few.

Tea Bag- R. Seelig and Hille Tea company in Dresden developed the first tea bag in 1929, which one will see in the boxes of tea in today’s grocery stores and supermarkets. The inventor was Adolf Rambold.

Personal Computer- Konrad Zuse invented the first personal computer, the Z3 in Berlin, in 1943. This was 14 years after he obtained his high school degree in Hoyerswerda, in northeastern Saxony.

Coffee Filter- Melitta Bentz from Dresden, developed the first coffee filter in 1908 with the goal of ensuring the last drop didn’t consist of coffee ground. The filter led to her creating the Melitta Coffee Company, which later moved to Munich. Melitta machte Kaffee wirklich zum Genuss. 🙂

Steam Locomotive- While Great Britain was the birthplace of the steam locomotive thanks to the inventions patented by William Murdoch (1784) and William Reynolds (1787), the first steam locomotive in Germany was the Saxonia, invented by Johann Andreas Schubert in 1838 and used for the country’s first rail line between Leipzig and Dresden.

Daily Newspaper- Two years after the end of the 30-Years War, the first daily newspaper was open to business in Leipzig, in 1850. Tim Ritzsch’s concept at that time was to inform the public of events in the city, six days a week. All done using the Guttenberg press. You can imagine how many people were hired to do the lettering and pressing at that time. 😉

Laundry Detergent- While in Saxony, one will be familiar with FEWA. It was not only an East German product, it was the first laundry detergent used for washing machines. The Chemnitz-based firm patented the first detergent in 1932; the inventor was Heinrich Gottlob Bertsch. It was perfect timing as laundry soap was not doing the (modern-day) washing machine, also invented in Saxony (in Schwarzenberg) 30 years earlier, any favors.

Mouthwash-  When a person had bad-breath during the 1700s, the only solutiion was to wash the mouth out with soap. In 1892, Karl August Lingner  solved that problem and invented the Odol Mouthwash. Today one will associate Odol with this unique invention which can be mixed with water and used for rinsing out the mouth, cleansing it of bad breath. So much for the soap and water unless your child swears a lot. 😉

Brandy- Christian Traugott Hünlich from Wilthen put Germany on the map with his creation of Brandy in 1842. It became so successful that it won a gold medal at the World Expo in Paris, 58 years later.

Beer Cap- Robert Sputh invented the modern-day beer cap in 1892. Yet unlike the screw cap that had been introduced by Pittsburghese Hymann Frank 20 years earlier, Sputh’s invention was tighter and required opening only with the bottle opener; not by twisting. 😉

 

 

Part 2:  Find out whether the following items originated from Saxony or not. Mark each one with a Y (yes) and N (no).  For each one from Saxony, guess at when it was introduced. 

  1. Thermos-flask (Thermoskanne)- YES; in 1881 by Adolf Ferdinand Weinhold of Chemnitz
  2. Coffee cup (Kaffeetasse)               NO
  3. Pottery                                              _NO-The art of making things of clay dates back to the stone age
  4. University of Technology              YES- The Technical University in Freiberg was founded in 1765 under the name Bergakademie (Academy for Miners). The TUF still exists today. 
  5. Cassette tape (Tonband)                YES- Fritz Pfleumer, an engineer from Dresden, developed and patented this in 1928
  6. Wine glass                                        NO
  7. Diesel engine                                    NO
  8. Toothpaste                                        YES- Ottomar Heinsius von Mayenburg, a chemist in Dresden invented this product in 1907, under the name Chlorodont. It was the forerunner to present-day toothpaste.  Ironically, it was the sucessor to another invention from Saxony, toothsoap, which had been created in 1852 by Adolf Heinrich August Bergmann, another pharmacist from Waldheim. 
  9. Cantilever truss bridge                  NO
  10. 35 mm Camera                                  YES- The Contax was introduced by the Carl-Zeiss Company in Dresden in 1932 and innovated again in 1949. It was the forerunner to the present-day 35mm camera but with mirror reflex anf now with SD-card. 

 

 

Part 3.  Choose the best answer for the following questions below.

  1. Homoeopathy, invented by Samuel Hahnemann in 1796, focuses on the following two aspects:

        a.  Mentality and physical illness                b. Pills and viruses

          c. Ecstasy and psychology                            d. the brain and the body

  2. Aktendulli, known as file fasteners in English, is used to…..

        a. Fasten files in binders                         b. Build log cabins with dowels

        c. Sharpen pencils                                    d. Jack up the car in the event                                                                                                                  of a flat tire.

 3. In what year was the freon (FCKW)-free refridgerator invented and where?

Part a.         1895             1935              1993              2003             2018

Part b.          Schwarzenberg     Scharfenstein    Schlettau      Aue      Zwickau

 

   4. The “Plauener Spitze” is in reference to this type of manufacturing of fabric?

   a. Jeans         b. Embroidery       c. Baseball Caps               d. Dress shirts   

5.  Which city in Saxony was the birth place of the ceramic-ware we still see at the pottery market?

    a. Radebeul          b. Dresden        c. Meissen            d. Riesa         e.Leipzig

 

Bonus Question:  The Göltzschtal Viaduct, as seen in the picture above, is the first brick stone railroad viaduct in the world. True or false? 

False. It holds the title as the longest of its kind, and at one time, it was the tallest. Yet evidence points to another brick stone railroad bridge at Wurzen (east of Leipzig). Built in 1836, it is the oldest operating railroad bridge in Germany and still serves rail traffic today. 

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There are plenty of sources that focus on the inventions from Saxony. Apart from this book above, you can also click on the links below, where you can read up on the facts. All the quiz questions come from the two links.

http://www.die-sachsen-kommen.de/shtm/erfindungen.htm#TH

https://mmt.inf.tu-dresden.de/Lehre/Sommersemester_05/Praktikum_MG/ergebnisse/16a/erfindungen.html

 

 

 

 

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Germany Quiz 8: Part III: The Inventions from Saxony

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Part III of the quiz focuses on the inventions from Saxony. Many of you probably don’t know that one in three household items that we use on a daily basis originated from Saxony. Apart from the coffee filter and the bra, as mentioned in part 2 of the Saxony quiz, what other products were created in Saxony, who was behind the idea and why?  Let’s find out by taking this guessing quiz on the inventions from the easternmost German state. Good luck as you take a stab at the three-part exercise. 🙂

Part 1: Which of the items in the group were invented from Saxony. Choose the ones you think were invented in Saxony and explain your reasons why. 

gas lantern        tissue paper       General Motors             light bulb

mile marker      tea bag               sugar cookies                  steam locomotive

street food        coffee filter       personal computer        daily newspaper

bicycle                laundry detergent          mouthwash       telephone

brandy               beer cap             encyclopedia                   Bible

 

Part 2:  Find out whether the following items originated from Saxony or not. Mark each one with a Y (yes) and N (no).  For each one from Saxony, guess at when it was introduced. 

  1. Thermos-flask (Thermoskanne)  ____________
  2. Coffee cup (Kaffeetasse)               ____________
  3. Pottery                                              ____________
  4. University of Technology              ____________
  5. Cassette tape (Tonband)                ____________
  6. Wine glass                                        ____________
  7. Diesel engine                                    ____________
  8. Toothpaste                                        ____________
  9. Cantilever truss bridge                  ____________
  10. 35 mm Camera                                ____________

 

Part 3.  Choose the best answer for the following questions below.

  1. Homoeopathy, invented by Samuel Hahnemann in 1796, focuses on the following two aspects:

        a.  Mentality and physical illness                b. Pills and viruses

          c. Ecstasy and psychology                            d. the brain and the body

  2. Aktendulli, known as ________________ in English, is used to…..

        a. Fasten files in binders                         b. Build log cabins with dowels

        c. Sharpen pencils                                    d. Jack up the car in the event                                                                                                                  of a flat tire.

 3. In what year was the freon (FCKW)-free refridgerator invented and where?

Part a.         1895             1935              1993              2003             2018

Part b.          Schwarzenberg     Scharfenstein    Schlettau      Aue      Zwickau

 

   4. The “Plauener Spitze” is in reference to this type of manufacturing of fabric?

   a. Jeans         b. Embroidery       c. Baseball Caps               d. Dress shirts   

5.  Which city in Saxony was the birth place of the ceramic-ware we still see at the pottery market?

    a. Radebeul          b. Dresden        c. Meissen            d. Riesa         e.Leipzig

 

Bonus Question:  The Göltzschtal Viaduct, as seen in the picture above, is the first brick stone railroad viaduct in the world. True or false? 

 

The Answers to the quiz you can find here. 

 

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Germany Quiz 8: Saxony Part I: How to Speak Sächsisch- Answer Key

 

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Glauchau’s market square  at night. Photo taken in May 2017

How did the quiz on Sächsisch Deutsch turn out? Which questions were difficult, which ones were easy? Are you ready to find out for yourself? If so, here are the answers to the Guessing Quiz on speaking German with a twist of Saxon to sprinkle on. Good luck and here we go! 🙂

Activity 1:

 

Sächsisch Hochdeutsch English
Fläscher Der Fleischer Butcher
Radscho Das Radio Radio
Bargblad Der Parkplatz Parking lot
Gliewärmel Die Glühwürmchen Fireflies
Daschendicher Die Taschentücher Tissue paper (Kleenix)
Biordäggl Der Bierdeckel Beer cap
Nachellagg Nagellack Nail polish
Breedschen Die Brötchen (Dinner) rolls
Beefschdeeg Die Rindersteak Beef steak
Glemdnor Der Klempner Plumber
Lorke Dünner Kaffee Weak coffee
Reformande Strafpredigt Sermon/Lecture
Dreiche Trocken Dry
Blembe Schwache Suppe Weak soup
Bliemchen (-kaffee) Ersatzkaffee Fake/ immitation coffee
Kääbsch pingelig Picky (eater)
Iezch Geärgert Angry
Motschgiebchen Marinekäfer Lady bug
Quatschen einfach daherreden Shooting the breeze (oral)
Rumbläken Herumschreien Yell around

 

Activity 2.

In your honest opinion, what is the Sächsisch equivalent to the following cities in Saxony. Mark the best answer. In some cases, none of the answers apply and therefore, you need to choose other and write it in (and also mention in the Comment section here)

 

  1. Zwickau (Saxony)     a. Twigge    b. Zwigge      c. Zwick          d. Zwish

 

  1. Leipzig     a. Leice       b. Liken          c. Leib            d. Leibz’sch

 

  1. Dresden    a. Dräsd’n       b. Driez      c. Drisch         d. Dreeb

 

  1. Chemnitz      a.Chemmik      b. Gemmnidz       c. Gemmit        d. Dammit

 

  1. Plauen     a. Plowing      b. Plaue     c. Plau         d. Plau`n    e. Other: Plo’ n

 

  1. Mylau   a. Mi-low    b. Meow        c. Moolah       d. Meela     e. Other __________________

 

  1. Bautzen    a. Pausen       b. Other ____________  c. Bauz’n         d. Baussen

 

  1. Meissen   a. Mice      b. Miken              c. Maise          d. Mei’ sn    e. Other ______________

 

Activity 3.

Now look at the pictures and choose the best of the three words in Sächsisch German and identify the English meaning. 

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a. Pieramidgerzen      b. Bieramidngärdse     c. Booramidskärze      EN:  Pyramid Candle

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a. Bleedma      b. Duummann    c. Blodmama        EN:  Dumbass/ Stupid Guy

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a. Seegeboot      b. Sähschelboud     c. Sälhboot      EN: Sailboat/ Yacht

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a. Chim-Cheroo      b. Feierrübel     c. Firebookman         EN: Smokestack

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a. Pomguberschbärde     b. Geeschma     c. Gombschudoreggsbärde  

EN: Computer expert

 

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